Kicker: Debate Is China’s Claim on the Nine-Dash Line Reasonable or Unreasonable? By Su-Young Kim, Reporter /firstname.lastname@example.org The Vietnamese government has banned the screening of the Hollywood movie “Barbie” because it contains footage that reflects China’s unilateral claims to its sovereignty in the South China Sea. Also, the Vietnamese government called on Netflix to drop dramas featuring China’s nine-dash line. What is China’s nine-dash line? It is the maritime border of the South China Sea claimed by the People’s Republic of China. It was established in 1947 and sets most of the South China Sea as China’s waters. Within the nine-dash line are the Dongsa Islands, the Paracel Islands, the Macclesfield Islands, and the Spratly Islands. After the nine-dash line was established by China, more than 80% of the South China Sea was included in the line, causing territorial disputes with neighboring countries such as Vietnam, the Philippines, and Malaysia. From now on, let’s find out what happened between China and its neighboring countries regarding the nine-dash line and why China designated the nine-dash line. Furthermore, let’s discuss whether their claims are reasonable or not. Map of the South China Sea History of China and Neighboring Nations Regarding the Nine-Dash Line China established a virtual boundary eleven-dash line in the South China Sea in 1947 when it created an official map under the Kuomintang government and changed the eleven-dash line to the nine-dash line in 1953 when the People’s Republic of China, which was launched in 1949, succeeded it. In January 2013, the Philippines filed a complaint with the International Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) with the aim of clarifying its right to develop in its exclusive economic zone (EEZ). The PCA ruled in July 2016 that China’s claim to the nine-dash line has no legal basis. However, China has ignored this and is pushing ahead with the construction of a military base on the rocks in the Spratly Islands. The PCA stated that noting in the Spratly Islands generates the EEZ, and that the Spratly Islands cannot create EEZs as a unit. Accordingly, some reefs are in the Philippines EEZ and do not overlap with any Chinese rights. Also, the PCA expressed its position that China deepened and expanded the controversy through dredging, artificial island construction, and construction activities. In fact, during the arbitration process, China installed runways, lighthouses on Mischief Reef in Philippines EEZ, adversely affecting the marine ecosystem, and permanently eliminated evidence of natural conditions that are key to determining whether it is an island. On July 13, 2020, U.S. Secretary of State Mile Pompeo said most of the rights China claims in the South China Sea were illegal. Pompeo’s statement came on the fourth anniversary of the International Permanent Court of Arbitration’s ruling on July 12, 2016, that China could not recognize the nine-dash line it put forward in claiming sovereignty over the South China Sea. Why China Claims the Nine-Dash Line in the South China Sea China has claimed that more than 250 islands and reefs in the nine-dash line are all Chinese territory and 80% of the 3.5 million square kilometers of the sea are under its jurisdiction. The basis for China’s claim of this nine-dash line as its territorial boundary is its historic title. The Chinese side has insisted on the literature of the Han Dynasty and the records of Jeonghwa’s expedition to the South Sea during the Ming Dynasty as the basis for its position. Conflicts are brewing between China and countries such as Vietnam, the Philippines, and Malaysia over the nine-dash line set by China. China claims that it is justified to set the nine-dash line based on historical data, but neighboring countries claim that it is unfair because it infringed on its territory. Is China’s claim to the nine-dash line reasonable or unreasonable? Sources: https://n.news.naver.com/article/469/0000753154?sid=104 https://m.blog.naver.com/dysnomia/221707048011 https://n.news.naver.com/article/023/0003773541?sid=104
Kicker: DEBATE Copyright of Artificial Intelligence Creations: Agree or Disagree? by Ji-Min Baek, Reporter email@example.com As Artificial Intelligence develops rapidly, it has become established in our daily lives and is being used a lot. AI is coming into use in diverse areas that have traditionally been regarded as the realm of humans, such as composition, pictures, novels and so on. According to the current copyright law, AI cannot be the subject of creation. However, with the activation of AI, copyright issues have emerged rapidly for creations learned and created by AI, and accordingly, the biggest issue is whether AI creations fall under the copyrighted work in copyright law. AI Related to Copyright Controversy Although there are many AI, in this article, we will focus on ChatGPT and Midjourney, which have become a big issue related to copyright. ChatGPT is an AI chatbot specializing in conversation developed by Open AI, and it is named after Chat and the first letter of Generated Pre-trained Transformer. It is an AI that allows users to enter text in the chat window and have conversations accordingly. In addition, it is more actively used than existing AI in that it is possible to perform tasks in a wide range of fields such as song composition, translation, and PPT production along with answering questions. Midjourney is an AI painter that draws pictures using AI technology and was created by Midjourney AI Research Institute. How to use it is connected to a discord when you access Midjourney, and when you write about the picture you want to draw where you command, Midjourney analyzes it and creates a picture. Generative AI refers to technologies that generate algorithms learned by machines themselves in a form that users want, such as text and images. They use existing creations in learning. Therefore, they are facing controversy over copyright infringement in relation to the numerous times the copyrighted works were used for their learning. Copyright Issues Related to AI Painter, Midjourney Through this Midjourney, the Theatre D’opera Spatial painting created by game planner Jason M. Allen was also controversial as it topped the digital art category at an art exhibition in the United States. In response to the controversy, Jason Allen argued, “It is a work that I created by entering instructions in a creative way for 80 hours, so it is no different from drawing with a camera or design software.” In addition, organizers said that the digital art sector allows artistic practices through digital technology, but controversy continued. Zarya of the Dawn is a cartoon based on Kris Kashtanova writing lines, and Midjourney draws it and the writer places it. In response, the U.S. Copyright Office officially stated that it was difficult to recognize copyright for AI creations, and did not recognize copyright for the image itself, but recognized copyright for the text and the placement of images. Copyright was not recognized in the image generated by artificial intelligence, but the copyright of the part contributed by the artist was recognized. https://n.news.naver.com/mnews/article/005/0001589219 https://m.post.naver.com/viewer/postView.naver?volumeNo=34435379&memberNo=32913615&vType=VERTICAL Copyright Issues Related to AI Composer, EvoM EvoM is Korea’s first AI composer, short for Evolutionary Music, and has the meaning of evolving itself and making music on its own. It is developed by the Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology and is composed by learning music theory and creating probable melody. In addition, it can make the music in seconds with a few clicks. In fact, it participated in the song of the singer as a composer and received a copyright royalty. However, the Korea Music Copyright Association belatedly recognized that AI made it and said it would stop paying copyright royalty because there was no legal basis. In response, Ahn Chang-wook, a professor at the GIST, who created EvoM, said, "It is regrettable that AI, the subject of creation, is not protected by creative rights." Opinion on Copyright of AI Creations As seen above, copyright issues related to Generative AI are varied, including the copyrighted works they learn. Among them, there are various opinions on whether to recognize the creation of AI, the biggest controversy, as the copyrighted work. Currently, there are no clear regulations on copyright ability of AI creations in Korea. There is an opinion that if AI creations are not protected under existing laws, it will hinder the growth of related industries, and there is an opinion that AI creations are also just as creative as the copyrighted works. On the other hand, there is an opinion that is concerned that recognizing AI creations as the copyrighted works will reduce the scope of human creation. This is because the speed that AI makes creations cannot be kept up by humans, and human creation will gradually decrease in areas such as art. Along with these, there are numerous opinions, including various interests. Already in other countries, discussions are underway on the copyright of AI creations. In May 2014, Europe issued robotlaw regulation guidelines that stated that the invention and content of AI need to be protected as intellectual property. Japan has already introduced a data copyright exemption clause for learning and has also proposed specific policies for AI copyright policies. The discussion is not expected to end easily as AI creations and copyright issues are intertwined with various interests such as the development of the AI industry, AI developers, users, and existing copyright law. Regarding this complex issue, do you agree or disagree with the argument that AI creations should be protected as the copyrighted works? Sources: https://blog.naver.com/kcopastory/222156124508 https://news.sbs.co.kr/news/endPage.do?news_id=N1006933085 https://www.joongang.co.kr/article/25142681#home https://www.joongang.co.kr/article/25099346 https://terms.naver.com/entry.naver?docId=6646863&cid=43667&categoryId=43667 http://www.digitaltoday.co.kr/news/articleView.html?idxno=470860 https://www.moneys.co.kr/news/mwView.php?no=2023051511164677595 https://www.ajunews.com/view/20220306222717831
Kicker: DEBATE How Long Will South Korea Be in the Earthquake-safe Zone? By Da-Hwee Kim, Editor-in-chief firstname.lastname@example.org On January 9, 2023, at around 1:28 a.m., an earthquake of magnitude* 3.7 occurred in the 25 km sea area toward Ganghwa-gun, Incheon. It is the first earthquake of 3.5 or higher in 70 days since the Goesan earthquake in October and was recorded as the first earthquake of the new year. Minor earthquakes have occurred in Korea in the past, but as the fairly large earthquakes that occurred in Gyeongju and Pohang in the mid-2010s, doubts about whether Korea is truly an earthquake-safe zone have only grown. * magnitude: the great size or extent of something Domestic earthquakes South Korea is known to be actually located inside the Eurasian plate. For this reason, seismic activity occurring on the Korean Peninsula cannot be explained by plate tectonics*. In addition, it is not directly in the seismic** zone. However, deep earthquakes hundreds of kilometers deep in the East Sea are believed to occur in the Benioff Zone of the Pacific Plate, which subducts obliquely under the Eurasian Plate from the Japan Trench. All other earthquakes occurring in and around the Korean Peninsula are also earthquakes that occur inside plates. * tectonic: relating to the structure of the earth's crust ** seismic: relating to earthquakes or other vibrations of the earth and its crust. https://www.bgs.ac.uk/discovering-geology/earth-hazards/earthquakes/what-causes-earthquakes/ In the case of Japan, Taiwan, and China, our neighboring countries, earthquakes occur frequently because they are located on the tectonic plate boundaries, and the damage they suffer from earthquakes is also quite large. Compared to this, it is easy to think that Korea is a safe place; yet it is absolutely forbidden to think that way. Earthquake history in South Korea Official records related to earthquakes can be found in historical sources such as 'History of the Three Kingdoms', 'History of the Goryeo', and 'Annals of the Joseon Dynasty'. Nevertheless, those records are insufficient to conduct current seismic research. Still, it can be seen from these records that about 1,800 felt earthquakes occurred from AD 2. http://english.hani.co.kr/arti/english_edition/e_national/819394.html Since the 19th century, relatively weak seismic activity has continued, and recently, in September 2016, the Gyeongju earthquake measured 5.8 on the Richter scale and in November 2017, the Pohang earthquake measured 5.4 on the Richter scale. What’s more, the number of minor earthquakes has increased considerably. According to the Korea Meteorological Administration's record of earthquake occurrence trends, the average number of earthquakes recorded in analog observations from 1978 to 1998 was 19.1. However, in digital observations from 1999 to 2020, an average of 70.6 earthquakes, more than three times higher, were recorded. Small and frequent earthquakes, why should we not ignore them? Earthquakes are generally characterized by the fact that as the number of small earthquakes increases, the likelihood of a large earthquake increases. The status that many small earthquakes occur means that the accumulated forces in the fault* zone have been collected enough to cause earthquakes. A series of small earthquakes simply means that the fault is weakening. The weakened fault is greatly broken at once by the accumulated force in the crust, and a large earthquake may be induced. Therefore, an increment in the number of small earthquakes is never desirable in terms of seismic hazards. * fault: a fracture or zone of fractures between two blocks of rock Recently, studies on the relationship between seismic activity and earthquake structure in the Korean Peninsula have been conducted. But unfortunately, most of the data is high-altitude seismic data, so it is difficult to accurately estimate factors such as the epicenter or magnitude. Discovery of active faults According to a recent government report on active faults, 16 places in the southeast area were analyzed as active faults. Furthermore, it is said that there are several active faults in the Chungcheong area. In this report, they analyzed quaternary faults of the Cenozoic Era or active faults with a high risk of earthquake recurrence. The analysis yielded very surprising results. The activity of faults was analyzed for the first time in Korea, and 14 active faults by section, including the Yugye segment of the Yangsan fault, were confirmed only in the southeast region of the Korean Peninsula. Including this result and the active faults investigated by the Ministry of Science and Technology, there are a total of 16 faults. We cannot help but feel a sense of fear with these findings. * quaternary: denoting the most recent period in the Cenozoic era What actions to take during an earthquake It is virtually impossible to prevent natural earthquakes with human power. That is why it would be of great help if we knew, even at a personal level, what to do in case of an earthquake. Here are a few actions to take during an earthquake. First of all, if you are in a building, get under a table or desk and wait for the shaking to stop. If you are outside, be aware of falling objects and evacuate to an empty lot. And don't ride the elevator. This is because if you board an elevator during an earthquake, you may be trapped in it and unable to get out. There are many other evacuation tips, so please refer to the image below. Ministry of the Interior and Safety (xn--le5b23c9wbqa.com) South Korea may have been a safe zone from earthquakes before. Even so, who can be sure of the safety of the coming future? As mentioned above, seismic activity on the Korean Peninsula occurs inside the plate, so it is frustrating that there is no theory about it. I believe that our country also needs an attitude of constantly conducting scientific research and preparing meticulously in preparation for possible disasters without continuing to be too complacent. Sources: https://www.yna.co.kr/view/AKR20230109001152530?input=1195m https://www.doopedia.co.kr/doopedia/master/master.do?_method=view&MAS_IDX=101013000860125 https://www.weather.go.kr/w/eqk-vol/archive/stat/trend.do https://edu.ksc.re.kr/site/main/archive/article/%EC%9E%91%EC%9D%80-%EC%A7%80%EC%A7%84-%EA%B8%89%EC%A6%9D%EC%9D%80-%ED%81%B0-%EC%A7%80%EC%A7%84%EC%9D%98-%EC%A0%84%EC%A1%B0-%ED%98%84%EC%83%81?cp=1&sv=%EC%9E%91%EC%9D%80%20%EC%A7%80%EC%A7%84&pageSize=8&sortDirection=DESC&listType=list&catId=11 https://news.kbs.co.kr/news/view.do?ncd=7597280&ref=A https://scienceexchange.caltech.edu/topics/earthquakes/what-causes-earthquakes
Kicker : DEBATE Fireworks: Makes World on Fire, Literally and Figuratively Seasonal Beautiful Scenery Both Enhances and Damages Our World Do-Hyuk Kim, Reporter email@example.com Recent comeback of fireworks parade in South Korea marked retrieval of our daily lives that was shut down two years ago due to the outbreak of COVID-19. The parade, mostly hosted by Hanhwa Corporation in Korea, boasted a bigger scale of fireworks compared to the ones shown in the parade held before coronavirus’ spread – ranging from Mapo Bridge to Hangang Railway Bridge. Return of the parade invited thousands of citizens to gather to places such as parks to enjoy this thirty-minutes of entertainment. As we can see from our country’s own parade, fireworks present special events to people and known as producing economic effects on several businesses. But they are also known to cause environmental issues, especially to the atmosphere. Is it reasonable to keep using fireworks to enlighten the ambience of parades or events? Let’s count the earnings and losses caused by fireworks more carefully with this article. History of fireworks is much longer than you would expect. You would be staggered by the fact that the first firework dates further back to almost the origin of humanity – second century Before Christ. Fireworks were often used to celebrate memorable events or to wish for a happy life back then, just like we do today. Enjoying fireworks was believed to be first founded in China, and Korea is speculated to have started watching fireworks in the Goryeo Dynasty. Now, all of global citizens favor watching this explosion in the sky and the economic effect it creates is immense. Take our recent fireworks parade for example. As we are Koreans, we are only interested in when the fireworks go on and where we should go to watch the event, but the parade was not only held in South Korea, but was held globally. A Japanese team, Italian team and Korean team each showcased their type of prettiest fireworks. In the case of South Korea, one million citizens visited several spots which are easy to watch fireworks parade showing off. Think about the economic impact that one million people went out from their homes and bought products from nearby local stores and businesses. It would be huge, that is for sure. These people spend their money for transportation, and what they eat or drink while waiting or watching the fireworks, and could spend even more time outdoors after the parade. Host of the parade, Hanwha group could promote their global image to global citizens who watch the parade via online and could further improve their businesses in the future in unexpected areas. My personal experience also supports fireworks’ positive effect on economy. When I visited Hawaii, I booked a cruise ship that included watching fireworks that was held every Friday. Ticket of boarding on Friday was fully booked every week, but other days were not even including weekends. Because of that firework, more tourists visited the spot to enjoy nightscape called Tantalus at the exact time when fireworks were fired. Fireworks make people to move around and develop economical activities, which can not be disregarded especially today when the economy is in a downturn. But there is a problem – a big one. You would not be so sure that environmental problem now has directly making an impact on our daily lives until last year, but it is completely different in 2022. Shooting fireworks to the sky harasses the atmosphere, since fireworks consist of metal and gunpowder. Several chemicals are used to add colors to each firework, which also give knock-on impact to our ceilings. Right after fireworks explode, microscopic particulate matters wobble around near the atmosphere – that we eventually breathe in. Last month in November, India had their biggest annual party called ‘Diwali.’ Diwali celebrates light beating darkness, which has a deep relationship with Hinduism. Since the celebration marks the defeat of darkness, billions of Indians shoot fireworks both privately and generally. The Indian government acknowledging the environmental issue prematurely announced ban on fireworks during the Diwali period, but no one followed the rule. The press of India and other countries reported that the level of particulate matter dramatically increased right after the very day Diwali was at its highlight. Those fine dust particles formed like a cloud, and limited vision to only nearby surroundings. If the global population keeps surging and enjoying fireworks, we would eventually end up at an unbreathable future with an atmosphere congested with dusts. We cannot immediately ban every single firework festival held in all countries of the world in the name of protecting the environment. Fireworks’ impact on the economy is still boasting its presence, and presenting joy to citizens is definitely an important role that fireworks have played ever since this technology was first developed. But to ensure our lives and descendants’ clean, fresh air, we need to at least reduce the frequency of holding firework parades in each nation. Fireworks are beautiful, but we should beware of the negative effects on our long-term survival. Sources: http://www.hanwha.co.kr/images/newsMedia/photo/20171010_news01.jpg (Image) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fireworks https://www.emerics.org:446/newsBriefDetail.es?brdctsNo=309043&mid=a10100000000
Kicker: DEBATE In Search of a Goldilocks Zone in Skyrocketing Chicken Prices By Do-Hyuk Kim, Reporter / Su-Young Kim, Cub-reporter firstname.lastname@example.orgemail@example.com Do you know how muck chicken is currently? The price of one chicken, including delivery fee, is 20,000 won to 30,000 won. Prices have risen because of covid-19, high oil prices, and the war in Ukraine. Therefore, the price of chicken, which used to be considered food for the common people, is also soaring. In March of this year, the chairman of a chicken company sparked controversy by saying that 30,000 won was reasonable. After 2 months later, they increased the price of the brand’s basic menu by 2,000 won, which caused more resistance. From the consumer’s point of view, the price of 30,000 won is very expensive; however, there is also an opinion that such a price is inevitable for chicken sales. From now on, let’s talk about high chicken’s price together. Is it too expensive, or inevitable? It's Too Expensive Even though the price is getting higher because of various reasons, I cannot agree with chicken’s price. First, chicken was a food which the common people can eat comfortably. Before 10 years ago, the famous franchise chicken company’s chicken price was 13,000 won to 16,000 won. Most people were enthusiastic about the unique and diverse taste of chicken shops, and chicken was considered a popular dish. Unfortunately, they cannot enjoy chicken anymore like before because of the high price. The franchise chicken companies said the reason of chicken’s high price is an increase in labor costs, frying powder, and building rent. However, the operating profit ratio of chicken franchises is increasing. One of the highest franchise chicken company’s profit ratios is 32%. This is like the profit margin of Apple, an electronics company. If they were really forced to raise prices due to material costs and additional costs, would they be able to make this profit margin? I think they are raising prices for corporate profits, citing the popularity of chicken and the excuse of rising prices. Second, a cheap chicken, priced at 6,990 won, appeared against expensive franchise chicken. This chicken is sold at a large supermarket. According to the menu development manager, he claimed that he does not lose money by purchasing ingredients in bulk to make chicken and frying and packaging meat directly at the mart. Consumers are reacting positively to the cheap and delicious chicken. This case may prove sufficiently that franchisees are in a situation where they can consider the price of food. In an age of inflation, consumers are keen on prices. They are not arguing that food prices should be lowered unconditionally. If we were just watching prices rise, other basic foods such as Tteok-bokki and gimbap, would also soar beyond our imagination. I think that the price of a product should be determined by properly harmonizing the positions of consumers and sellers. Therefore, franchisees should listen to consumers and think about better solutions to higher chicken prices. It's Inevitable Because reasonably priced chicken became so hot between people and controversy, it even came up on television news, and this has to be made clear. The interview from the supermarket supervisor saying that selling this alarmingly cheap chicken still makes them some money despite having impressively low-price range should not be understood as ordinary chicken restaurants have constantly priced theirs excessively high for the pursuit of big earnings. Supermarkets can sell these chickens so cheaply because of these three reasons. First is the economy of scale applies to these supermarkets. Big supermarkets attract consumers all the time and tons of people visit these markets on weekends. They could set low profit margin on a single chicken they sell, since they can sell lots of them without having risks of leftover chicken remaining in their facilities becoming cold. Tagging low profit margin on a single product naturally makes the product cheaper, so supermarkets can entice customers to buy just by deploying this simple strategy. Small business owners, on the other hand, can’t match this remarkably easy tactics that big supermarkets easily apply. They have to pay more for purchasing each ingredient required for baking a chicken and should pay a commission to their head office if they are under specific chicken brands. Settling out alone without the help of a major chicken brand could be possible, but it will not be easy and the owner should manage with even bigger risk of failure due to low awareness of the store. Big supermarkets do not need any aggressive promotions to tell customers about their new chicken’s presence. The production cost issue continues. Supermarkets already have cooking utensils and space to bake a chicken that small business owners should buy brand new. Supermarkets sell other groceries, so launching a new chicken menu targeting sensible customers is as easy as just adding a new menu that is already related to the one that already exists in a Michelin-awarded restaurant. This reveals the second problem, which is the delivery service platforms. Big supermarkets are already big enough to request customers to come and fetch their chickens in person, but local chicken restaurants are not. Delivery service platforms extorting money from small businesses was already pointed out as a social problem, but most customers are already tamed by the convenience of delivery service apps made by service providers. Delivery service providers are currently abusing their monopoly status to local food stores, including chicken restaurants. Not only do the head offices of popular chicken brands steal lunch money from those small business owners, but delivery service providers too. They ask to pay store owners commissions in the name of attracting customers and connecting delivery men to the store, which is pretty nominal and falsely charged. In the olden days when such thing like delivery service providers did not exist, customers called directly to the store for their requests. No one complained about this organized, Korea-specific system and chicken restaurant owners were free from these expensive commissions. Happiness was short lived, with the introduction of the smartphone and delivery service providers. These service providers are sitting between chicken restaurants and customers, collecting an unfair toll – which big supermarkets never have to consider. The final reason is that the liberation from failure only applies to these big supermarkets. Even if these cheap chickens become a commercial flop, supermarkets are not afraid of such failure. It may not be happy to lose money, but they still can ignore the possibility of failing, since other products they sell got them covered. To local chicken restaurant owners, it is likely that chicken is the only measure of earning money and bad sales of chicken leads them directly into a complete shutdown of the store. They could not dare to price these chickens so cheaply while enduring losses on every chicken they sell. Big supermarkets can also give up on earning money with this cheap chicken but focus on attracting customers to their stores. Big crowds gather every day in these supermarkets to buy this red-hot chicken, and this huge number of people each have a high possibility of buying another product from the supermarket. If a customer visited the supermarket to buy this chicken and suddenly remembered that coffee is about to run out at his home, that is a success for these supermarkets. Congratulations for big supermarkets even making money with that chicken, but to be honest, they would not care about money lost by producing that cheap chicken even if it failed. They could feel free and be highly interested in developing a new record-breaking in terms of price in differently areas, such as ‘half-priced paper towel.’ Small chicken restaurants in your neighborhood cannot even dream of this whole story. These issues eventually all add up. Problems imposed to local business owners instigate the price of chicken you can get from a chicken restaurant within two kilometers away to be expensive. Twenty thousand won for a chicken is inevitable for small chicken restaurant owners to maintain their stores, not for their wealth. Recent inflation and pricier wheat, chicken and cooking oil is new in terms of this issue, and this also is hurting local chicken restaurants. Consumers are facing a severe recession that they have never experienced since 2010, when the subprime mortgage crisis struck the entire global society. All of the consumers, including us, are in search of cheaper products that can replace their previous purchases. It is a difficult time to live an ordinary life while withstanding this crisis and the epidemic combined. When business owners return to their homes, they transform into consumers. When each of these consumers go to work, they become a merchant in either a tangible item or an intangible form. We are both consumers and providers, so effort to impose pricing that everyone can agree on is required, including chickens. One thing should be clear: the goldilocks zone of the chicken price is where both consumers and chicken restaurant owners can happily make an agreement.
Kiker: DEBATE Why Did They Have To Do It at the Subway? What Attitude Should We Have? By Yun-Seo Jung, Cub-Reporter firstname.lastname@example.org Have you ever encountered people with disabilities while using public transportation such as subways and buses? What do you think about public transportation for the disabled? For example, Cheonan buses run 28 low-floor buses for handicapped and there were 6 routes in 2021. In the same year, Cheonan low-floor buses supply rate was about 6.7% in March. Compared to the supply rate of low-floor buses, which is 56.4% in Seoul and 28% in the country, Cheonan is very low. Even if they use public transportation, passengers who ride together may feel inconvenience due to inadequacy of facilities. A Trigger for the Disabled Subway Protest As previously stated, it is true that it is still difficult for disabled people to access public transportation. Solidarity Against Disability Discrimination have demonstrated on the subway, demanding assurance of disabled rights budget, legislation and amendment of the four laws on disabled rights since December last year. Their specific requirements are government support about operating expenses of lifelong education facilities for the disabled and special transportation for disabled, etc. They demonstrated on the metropolitan subway during rush hour, which is usually crowded. On the Seoul subway, some put wheelchairs on the doors and kept them from closing. Others demonstrated with their limbs and heads on the floor, bowing and crawling inside the subway. Protests delayed trains, affecting students and workers to go to school and work. Citizens who were cheering for their protests also complained as they suffered inconvenience. There were also various opinions among the people about the protest. It was divided into a position in favor and in opposition of the protest. However, as the protests continued, the views that defended them also changed negatively. Why Did They Have to Do It on Subway? As mentioned earlier, access to public transportation for the disabled is very low. Disabled people have to ride wheelchair lifts at stations without elevators or transfer sections. However, it is difficult to operate alone, and dangerous because there are many falls and serious injuries or deaths. There are so many difficulties that disabled face in their daily lives as well as when using public transportation like subways. Despite they demonstrated dozens of times, the surroundings for the disabled are not improving. Thus, they are protesting on public transportation with a lot of people. HANKYOREH hani.co.kr What do you think of this protest? Do you agree or disagree? Protests to gain rights hurt others, and in the process, their boundaries deepened by saying hurtful words to each other. What attitude should disabled and non-disabled have in the world we live in together? What attitude should we have? Please leave your opinions. Sources : https://youtu.be/Go3ii7BDE3Y https://www.ajunews.com/view/20220328113653317
Kicker: DEBATE (NO-KIDS ZONE) NO-KIDS Zone, a Distinction or Discrimination? By Sol-Hyang Park, Editor-in-chief email@example.com No Kids zone literally means to restrict access to infants, children, or customers with them. We can mainly find it in restaurants or cafes. According to the No kids zone map, there are at least 400 no kids zones as of November 2021, and the number is increasing. No kids zone - Is it just a distinction or discrimination? – There are various views on this point. Opinions of Supporters Firstly, let's look at the perspective of supporters. Many stores are declaring a no-kids zone, for the reason that children are usually noisy and cause a lot of accidents, so they want to enjoy the store only among adults. The fundamental problem is that the parents of these children act egocentrically, such as leaving defecated diapers on the table in cafes or neglecting their children crying, running around or making a fuss. Therefore, store owners come to prefer a no-kids zone to avoid and minimize factors that hinder their comfort, since they are obligated to provide a not-annoying, pleasant space for other customers. There is also an opinion that if accidents occur by children, the store owners are likely to hold relatively much responsibility - so store owners block the possibility of accidents at all and had better at least not suffer damage. In addition, setting No-kids zone is not legally regulated. Therefore, it is a matter of business freedom, and they believe it is an appropriate measure for the convenience of customers and the benefit of stores. Opinions of Opponents Then, what about the opposite view? The most representative reason is that it discriminates against specific customers, infringing on basic rights. Public etiquette that should not harm others is what everyone should keep, not just some people specified. However, it is discrimination against children to put an age limit based on the judgment that all children of that age will harm others. Thus, there are growing concerns that No Kids zone will instill the perception that children are not members of our society and the discrimination culture can spread naturally. Opponents believe that even if there are children who make a fuss, most parents will not let them cause trouble and that there are more people who do not than selfish parents. In addition, in terms of learning, they believe that the No Kids zone blocks all the lessons that society can give to children in advance. No one keeps public etiquette from birth, we communicate with society in public places and learn it. In this sense, No Kids zone is a selfish choice to take away opportunities from children to learn from society. Some also say that as the No Kids zones expand, if the society reluctance to children spreads, it will worsen the low birth rate problem of Korea. What would be the real reaction? In a survey on No Kids Zones, 70% of the respondents said, "No Kids Zones can be allowed considering the freedom of owners and consideration for other customers." (1,000 men and women aged 18 or older, 21/11/12-15, Korean Research) Besides, searching various surveys, when looking up various surveys on the Internet, there were many cases where the approval rate was high. However, some people continue to speak out for children's human rights.As such, discussions on "No Kids Zones" will continue. What do you think? Sources : https://www.goeonair.com/news/article.html?no=25350 https://www.donga.com/news/Economy/article/all/20211203/110583177/2 https://www.incheon.go.kr/moo/MOO020101/2010212
Kicker: DEBATE (MENTAL DISEASE) Masked Depression By Eugene Ha, Editor firstname.lastname@example.org Are you depressed these days? I think the number of people suffering from COVID-19 depression is increasing as the number of people staying at home and social distancing increases. Although you usually have depression, there are many cases where you do not feel depressed. A disease that comes without showing, in fact, is called masked depression. Have you heard of it? If you have never heard of it, let me introduce you to the ‘masked depression.’ What is Masked Depression? Masked depression refers to a condition in which a patient's depression is like wearing a mask. He is smiling without showing his gloomy mood, but he has symptoms of depression in his heart. Obviously, he is depressed and does not recognize himself as depressed even though he is in need of treatment. On the contrary, he shows too cheerful behavior rather than being depressed. Thus, it is easy to misunderstand it as "magnosis," not depression. It usually appears in people who are not good at expressing depressing feelings How about the Symptoms? When you have masked depression, symptoms often appear elsewhere in the body, not in the depression of the mind. For example, headaches, sleep disorders, fatigue, loss of appetite, and pain for no reason. People complain that they are sick all over the body and see other departments such as orthopedics. It may be accompanied by "health anxiety" that continues to worry about health even though there are no clear pathological factors.Let's take a look at some of the symptoms. 1. Memory is significantly reduced compared to before. Depression and memory may not have much to do with each other at first glance, but if you look closely, they are closely related. As depression progresses, physical damage is done to the part of the brain responsible for memory. As a result, there are people who experience various cognitive disorders and things that they already remembered become white. However, memory impairment in terms of language where certain words do not come to mind rather than repetitive behavior or memory impairment in certain techniques. 2. It is very difficult to focus on something. Many depressive patients experience poor concentration or thinking skills. 3. Rapid changes in appetite and weight Some people lose weight and some people gain weight. If you have more appetite and gain weight more than before, you may suspect amorphous depression, a subclassification of depression. It is acting lively in front of others, so it is hard to recognize itself because it is not visible on the outside. 4. Sleep longer for no particular reason As interest in daily life itself decreases and motivation decreases, lethargy increases. That's why the body naturally needs to sleep and it takes longer to sleep. On the contrary, insomnia, which is repeated every day, is also said to be one of the symptoms. Symptoms may also vary depending on the patient's age. Adolescents are annoyed and rebellious, and middle-aged and elderly people are likely to show anger, emptiness, and suspicion. In the case of older people, symptoms such as insomnia, attention span, and memory loss are frequent. It can also be seen as 'falsatile dementia' with rapid memory degradation. Fake dementia is 'fake' dementia, so it improves together when depression improves together. Therefore, it is necessary to suspect depression if you do not feel depressed, and if the test results continue to show advanced symptoms even though there are no particular physical problems. How can we find out if we have mask depression? In TestKorea, you can receive TEST KOREA'S On-line Computer Scoring Masked Depression Inventory (TMDI). It is available to all age groups from 18 years of age and older, and the degree of change in depression can be checked if carried out regularly. A total of 21 questions will take 5 to 10 minutes. This objective examination would be more appropriate for self-diagnosis. How can we cure it? 1. People with depression are also afraid of how others will feel about them and how they will react to it, and they should relieve their stress and take a psychological sense of stability. 2. Let's have a regular lifestyle. 3. Let's eat food that helps ease tension. - Lactium, which stabilizes negative emotions such as fear and anxiety, is an ingredient found in milk and milk powder that is effective in relieving stress-induced irritating reactions. Let's take it for mental and physical stability. 4. Let's eat a variety of nutrients in balance. In the Covid-19 era, which still continues in the second semester, we must look at not only health but also our minds. If we leave the disease unattended because we have depression in our daily lives even though we have stress from employment and academic problems, it will lead to other mental illnesses later on and we can easily collapse into depression. Let's work together to make our minds healthy from now on!
Kicker: DEBATE (EXHIBITION) The Benefits and Drawbacks of Online Exhibitions in the Pandemic Era by Seo-Won Hong, Cub-Reporter email@example.com The pandemic led to “Untact Culture.” Nowadays, many exhibitions and concerts have decided to be held online. Currently, online exhibitions are still held at the National Museum of Korea and the National Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art. Sangmyung University also held exhibitions online. In December last year, the Department of Photography and Digital Contents held the graduation exhibition offline and also held it online in line with the pandemic era. The Sangmyung University Museum is currently holding online exhibitions. I will find out the benefits and shortcomings of online exhibitions through this article. <Online Exhibition View of “The Modern and Contemporary Korean Writing” at MMCA> The benefits of online exhibitions One of the most significant benefits of online exhibitions is physical boundaries do not restrict people. Location and time are no longer a problem. The fact that online exhibitions do not constrain people makes them economical. Online exhibitions can help visitors save a lot of money they usually would spend on transportation costs. Online exhibitions are also beneficial to exhibitors as they do not need to spend money to rent exhibition halls and plan a schedule. There are also fewer distractions from other visitors. “Duo”, a private marriage agency, conducted a survey of 300 Korean singles from May 21st to May 24th this year. The result showed that another advantage of online exhibition are “people can watch exhibitions without worrying about Covid-19” and “people don’t have to compete to get tickets.” According to data by the International Council of Museums (ICOM), almost all museums around the world were closed because of the COVID-19 pandemic and during the lockdown, many museums enhanced their digital activities. Although almost half of the respondents who responded to the ICOM survey replied that their museum already had a presence on social media or shared its collections online before the lockdowns, the digital communication activities analysed by the survey increased in at least 15% of the museums. The Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art (MMCA) pre-released “The Modern and Contemporary Korean Calligraphy” online since its opening. In a Seoul Culture Today interview, MMCA Director Youn Bum-mo said that MMCA increases access to contents of culture and art online. According to an interview on MMCA, he mentioned “Although museum visits are restricted due to the coronavirus pandemic, I hope that the online tour of this calligraphy exhibition will provide some peace and a sense of hope.” The drawbacks of online exhibitions The drawbacks of online exhibitions come from the limitation of technology. People might have trouble connecting to online exhibitions. In the case of a live streaming exhibition, it can be unstable. Furthermore, online exhibitions cannot embody artwork perfectly. People can see the exhibition only through a screen online. The Architectural Digest article, “11 Digital Art and Design Exhibitions to Get Lost in from Home”, mentioned that the dramatic effects of brushstrokes over canvas are a challenge to convey for the screen. The subtlety of colors, the texture and scale are challenging to capture virtually. The “Duo” survey, as mentioned earlier, showed that Korean singles mentioned “low quality and less closer to reality than offline” as drawbacks of online exhibitions. Many museums use VR technology for more vivid exhibitions, but it is not commercialized widely yet. In addition, there are other barriers such as a decrease in image quality when enlarging a portion of the screen. Online exhibitions have limitations on the ways of communication. People can communicate mostly through chat boxes or online bulletin boards. Those cannot embody immediate reactions occurring in real time at that moment. Even though participating in live chat, people are not in the same actual space so they could lose a sense of immersion and concentration easily. People also can quit the online website in the middle of an exhibition. There are various positions about online exhibitions. Online exhibitions have benefits and drawbacks. Especially nowadays, online exhibitions are held frequently. Some may feel sad that they cannot visit offline exhibitions and just watch them online. Online exhibitions have shortcomings, but they will give enjoyment to people who are tired of Covid-19. Sources: http://www.mmca.go.kr/pr/blogDetail.do?bId=202003310000364&bCd=03&cdId=1360&bGb=02 https://www.duo.co.kr/html/duostory/media_news_view.asp?idx=6259&page=3 http://www.mmca.go.kr/pr/pressDetail.do?menuId=6020000000&bdCId=202003310007157&searchBmCid=200903020000010 http://www.sctoday.co.kr/news/articleView.html?idxno=32253 http://www.icomkorea.org/board/bbs/board.php?bo_table=news&wr_id=184 https://www.architecturaldigest.com/story/digital-art-and-design-exhibitions-get-lost-in-from-home
Kicker: DEBATE (MILITARY) Do you Agree for Extra Points for Discharged Soldiers? Natural Right or Reverse Discrimination? By Dong- wook Kim, Editor firstname.lastname@example.org Discussions on the pros and cons of whether extra points for the discharged soldiers should be given in South Korea have continued since 2001. Of course, the policy has been abolished, but the issue is floating on the surface because of two hundred thousand people agreeing on a petition about both men and women serving the military service. Is giving out extra points policy for the discharged soldiers a fair right that they can take? Or since there are beneficiaries, is it a reverse discrimination for the members of society? Most of the Soldiers are Discharged with Nothing Most of the soldiers in Korea do not volunteer to go to the military. Who would want to lose their freedom? However, as an armistice country it is one of the duties for men to serve in the military for 18 months. Thus, it is a nation’s obligation to benefit the discharged soldiers. The average age of the soldiers is in their 20s which is the age that their peers are preparing to advance to the society to do economic activities. Extra points are the least thing that the country can reward to the soldiers who lost their youths. In addition, the extra points policy can encourage the ones who are serving in the military and prevent soldiers from avoiding entering the service. The fundamental reason that people avoid military duty is that they are not getting any rewards from it. When extra points for the soldiers are carried out, youth will agree to go to the military and it can promote morale to the ones who are serving. Soldiers Waiting in a line to finish their duties Some of the opinion say that we can provide other rewards to these discharged soldiers. However, the financial problem can occur if the soldiers get paid. Since the populism of the welfare going on in the country, an astronomical amount of debt exists. Thus, the policy without supporting economically can be a wise choice. What about People Who Cannot Go to the Military? Extra point for the discharged soldiers is unconstitutional. The court has already made a decision that this policy brings reverse discrimination to women and the ones who do not have to serve in the military. Therefore, it is a consumptive controversy to make it as a law again. As was said before, the policy can bring serious discrimination to the opposite camp. Comparing the percentage of employment of the served and not served applicants there is a 12.9% gap. This shows that extra points policy is not just a small reward that the soldiers can receive but a big disadvantage for the other applicants. Military also help soldiers to enjoy their hobbies and gain academic experiences. From around the 2010s, the military is providing book benefits to soldiers and spare time for them to study their majors. Soldiers have the privilege to select their duties in the military, which most of the university students choose something which has to do with their majors. Falling behind because of entering the military is just an excuse that cannot be recognized. Along with the policy that both men and women should perform military service, the social discussion is getting heightened. There has been a controversy on both genders should have the duty to serve the country as a soldier along with the extra points for discharged soldiers. This opinion insists that all the people in the country should be able to fight back when the war occurs plus, all the volunteered soldiers will be rewarded with the extra point. Both opinions about the extra point should be respected, and most importantly, the policy should not be biased to one group.